Saturday, March 14, 2020

The Geoglyphic Art of Chiles Atacama Desert

The Geoglyphic Art of Chiles Atacama Desert More than 5,000 geoglyphs- prehistoric works of art placed on or worked into the landscape- have been recorded in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile over the past thirty years. A summary of these investigations appears in a paper by Luis Briones entitled The geoglyphs of the north Chilean desert: an archaeological and artistic perspective,  published in the March 2006 issue of the journal Antiquity.   The Geoglyphs of Chile The best-known geoglyphs in the world are the Nazca lines, built between 200 BC and 800 AD, and located approximately 800 kilometers away in coastal Peru. The Chilean glyphs in the Atacama Desert are far more numerous and varied in style, cover a much larger region (150,000 km2 versus the 250 km2 of the Nazca lines), and were built between 600 and 1500 AD. Both the Nazca lines and the Atacama glyphs had multiple symbolic or ritual purposes; while scholars believe the Atacama glyphs additionally had a vital role in the transportation network connecting the great South American civilizations.Built and refined by several South American cultures- likely including Tiwanaku and Inca, as well as less-advanced groups- the widely varied geoglyphs are in geometric, animal and human forms, and in about fifty different types. Using artifacts and stylistic characteristics, archaeologists believe the earliest were first constructed during the Middle Period, beginning around 800 AD. The most recent may be associated with early Christian rites in the 16th century. Some geoglyphs are found in isolation, some are in panels of up to 50 figures. They are found on hillsides, pampas, and valley floors throughout the Atacama Desert; but they are always found near ancient pre-Hispanic trackways marking llama caravan routes through the difficult regions of the desert connecting the ancient people of South America. Types and Forms of Geoglyphs The geoglyphs of the Atacama Desert were built using three essential methods, ‘extractive’, ‘additive’ and ‘mixed’. Some, like the famous geoglyphs of Nazca, were extracted from the environment, by scraping the dark desert varnish away exposing the lighter subsoil. Additive geoglyphs were built of stones and other natural materials, sorted and carefully placed. Mixed geoglyphs were completed using both techniques  and occasionally painted as well.The most frequent type of geoglyph in the Atacama are geometric forms: circles, concentric circles, circles with dots, rectangles, crosses, arrows, parallel lines, rhomboids; all symbols found in pre-Hispanic ceramics and textiles. One important image is the stepped rhombus, essentially a staircase shape of stacked rhomboids or diamond shapes (such as in the figure).Zoomorphic figures include camelids (llamas or alpacas), foxes, lizards, flamingos, eagles, seagulls, rheas, monkeys, and fishes includin g dolphins or sharks. One frequently occurring image is a caravan of llamas, one or more lines of between three and 80 animals in a row. Another frequent image is that of an amphibian, such as a lizard, toad or serpent; all of these are divinities in the Andean world connected to water rituals.Human figures occur in the geoglyphs and are generally naturalistic in form; some of these are engaged in activities ranging from hunting and fishing to sex and religious ceremonies. On the Arica coastal plains can be found the Lluta style of human representation, a body form with a highly stylized pair of long legs and a square head. This type of glyph is thought to date to AD 1000-1400. Other stylized human figures have a forked crest and a body with concave sides, in the Tarapaca region, dated to AD 800-1400. Why Were the Geoglyphs Built? The complete purpose of the geoglyphs is likely to remain unknown to us today. Possible functions include a cultic worship of mountains  or expressions of devotion to Andean deities; but Briones believes that one vital function of the geoglyphs was to store knowledge of safe pathways for llama caravans through the desert, including the knowledge of where salt flats, water sources, and animal fodder could be found. Briones terms these â€Å"messages, memories and rites† associated with the pathways, part sign post and part story-telling along a transportation network in an ancient form of combined religious and commercial travel, not unlike the rite known from many many cultures on the planet as pilgrimage. Large llama caravans were reported by Spanish chroniclers, and many of the representational glyphs are of caravans. However, no caravan equipment has been found in the desert to date (see Pomeroy 2013). Other potential interpretations include solar alignments. Sources This article is a part of the guide to the Geoglyphs, and the Dictionary of Archaeology. Briones-M L. 2006. The geoglyphs of the north Chilean desert: an archaeological and artistic perspective.  Antiquity 80:9-24. Chepstow-Lusty AJ. 2011. Agro-pastoralism and social change in the Cuzco heartland of Peru: a brief history using environmental proxies. Antiquity 85(328):570-582. Clarkson PB. Atacama Geoglyphs: Huge Images Created Across the Rocky Landscape of Chile. Online manuscript. Labash M. 2012. The Geoglyphs of the Atacama Desert: A bond of landscape and mobility. Spectrum 2:28-37. Pomeroy E. 2013. Biomechanical insights into activity and long distance trade in the south-central Andes (AD  500–1450). Journal of Archaeological Science 40(8):3129-3140. Thanks to Persis Clarkson for her assistance with this article, and to Louis Briones for the photography.

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

4 Different Questions that need to be answered about 60-70 words per Assignment

4 Different Questions that need to be answered about 60-70 words per question - Assignment Example The mission of leadership initiative will be to educate, inspire, and empower the young student, and through mentoring, this mission will be accomplished. Thus, the students’ new student will be able to observe, interact, and learn from other students. The following steps were applied during the development of time management skill that serves a role model in the next class. I wrote somewhere the things that I was supposed to accomplish such as personal, and homework. Then I came up with deadlines for every task that I was to accomplish. I made sure; I did not multi-task. And then, I applied my downtime. Finally, I rewarded myself after finishing my activities. Particular approaches helped me to acquire decision-making skills. For instance, before making any decision, I could first weigh the pros and cons before making the best decision. After that, I narrow the options so as to stick to the best. I made sure, I evaluate the significance of the potential decision, and then final, I made sure I go for the well informed

Monday, February 10, 2020

Clinical Pharmacy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Clinical Pharmacy - Essay Example It is evident that besides balanced food that is given to the patient some other nutrient supplements facilitate in recovery and reduce the health related troubles that become devastating if deficiency is related with the nutrients required for the well being. Patients are getting variety and choice of nutrition feed because of the commercial availability of many products in the market. Many companies are coming up with a special protocol of feed and related illness. This enhances the awareness of patient about the kind of food essential to combat illness (Concern at nutrition in hospitals). Nutrition supplements are licensed products and can be provided as the sole source of nutrition. They may be prescribed on medical grounds for diverse ailments. Depending on the severity and class of sickness, the nutrition supplements can be taken. Hospitals play lead role in making the patient aware of the consequences if the nutrition is not provided in the desired quantity. Hospital staff must help the patient psychologically, the advantages and disadvantages of the feed type he has been introduced to. This not only prepares the patient mentally but patient also co-operates with the hospital staff. Keeping this in mind the present study is conducted to build an understanding towards the nutritional support products, their advantages and problems and the available products that patient can utilize for better and sooner recovery. Basically three types of feeds are given for diverse ailments these are: Sip feeds, Enteral (tube) feeds and TPN feeds. Sip Feeds Various policies are defined to prescribe Sip feeds or Oral Nutrition Supplements for Patients with poor nutritional status especially those having: Disease related malnutritione.g. Reduced appetite or experience difficulty in swallowing, in cancer of throat or gut. Short-bowel syndrome (SBS) Intractable malapsorption Pre-operative preparation of undernourished patients Proven inflammatory bowel disease Following total gastrectomy Dysphagia Bowel Fistulas CAP Dialysis (Nutrition support in adults) Importance of Sip feed: Help the patient to gain weight or avoid loss of weight. Help the patient to surmount weakness of tiredness Help the patient to take in adequate liquid. Help the patient to alleviate the pressure to eat Help the patient to drink enough when dietary supplements cannot. (Nutrition support in adults) Before prescribing Sip feed it is essential to assess nutritional status, BMI calculation and weight loss by using simple nutritional risk scoring system When prescribing sip feeds * Do try equipped standard food (by adding milk, butter, cheese or cream)as first line therapy (4weeks before stipulating sip feeds). * Ensure that all patients be given suitable dietary advice by a state-registered dietitian or suitable trained member of the primary health care team. * No long term use without regular monitoring and assessment * It should not exceed 500-600kcals daily unless under the care of a dietitian. * Ensure that supplements are not taken at meal times / after meals e.g. as a bedtime drink to avoid reduction in food intake. * It should not be given as the sole source of nutrition except in consultation with

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Rationale - how women are treated in soap operas Essay Example for Free

Rationale how women are treated in soap operas Essay I am going to be investigating into how women are treated in soap operas. The reason I have chosen to carry out this study is due to the fact that I think that women are given very stereotypical roles within soap operas and it is very hard for them to break out of those boundaries and those specific labels they have been given. The method I will take to reach my objective is to use the content analysis approach. This is a method I will adopt using Meehans research. My aim is to compare how much or how less has changed within that period of time. I hypothesise that in comparison to Meehans analysis of soap operas women are still labelled in the same categories. From this method I should be able to reach to a conclusion as to whether my hypothesis is correct. The method of research I am going to use is content analysis of magazines, TV and newspaper. Content analysis involves the very careful quantification of the content of the media messages. It is able to give a general impression about media content, which can be the basis of theoretical work or policy and programme development. Therefore the way I will carry out my research is by using Meehans study that was carried out in 1960s and 1970s on soap operas and how he categorised the women within the soaps into specific groups. I will carry out my research using a lot of primary resources. To investigate this concept I am going to look at the model, which is similar to the hypodermic syringe model. I am also going to use the feminist approach to try to explain some of the reasons as to why there are so many stereotypical views within soap operas towards women. I am going to be looking at Fergusons feminist cult theory. This highlights how there are many stereotypical views within the soap operas. Context She is seen in Meehans content analysis study of the presentation of women in soap operas shows that in American drama serials there are only 10 female character types that are presented, they are; The Imp, a rebellious tomboy character. She is adventurous, not really sexual, often finds herself in trouble, she is the opposite of what society expects a women to be and the trouble she gets into is often a result of this. The Goodwife, she is domestic, attractive, home-centred and content. She does not wish to become involved with the world outside the home, leaving this to her lovely husband. The Harpy, is an aggressive single woman. She is powerful, even overpowering and not afraid to take on or chase after men. The Bitch, is a sneak and a cheat. She is manipulative, dangerous and deceitful. She lacks the power to be a real villain (invariably male) but she causes real trouble for the forces of good. The Victim, is the passive female who suffers accident, disease or violence, depending in the type of show or it could be to domestic violence. The Decoy, she is a heroine disguised as a victim. Apparently helpless and dependent, shes actually strong and resourceful. She is quite likely to be mistreated, hurt or captured, but she is capable of overcoming her difficulties. The Siren, is a woman who uses her sexuality to lure her victim to a sticky end. The Courtesan, is close to being a prostitute and perhaps has been one. The Witch, has extraordinary power despite this she is invariably dominated by a man and is persuaded often reluctantly to suppress her powers or use it for his aims. The Matriarch, prestige and authority. a positive light despite the fact that she is too old to be sexually attractive. Her status is almost of that of a hero. This study shows that women are portrayed as neater good or evil, never a combination. It also shows that good women are portrayed as submissive, sensitive and domesticated. Bad women are portrayed as rebellious, independent and selfish. Male evil characters are always counterbalanced by good ones, this is not so with female evil characters. The number of occupations which women are portrayed as holding is limited to a few, primarily housewife, receptionist and whore, male roles are also few in number compared to reality, but are more exciting, such as doctor, spies, detective and astronaut. While studies such as Meehans, could be criticised for being dated and referring to the series of the 1960s and 70s. The content recycling of such series on satellite and cable channels means that they are still relevant. Moreover, many of the point she makes are relevant even in more recent television. The number of women portrayed in the media depends very much on the medium concerned and the genre type. Soap operas have relatively high proportion of women, though they are still outnumbered by as much of 7 men to 3 women in some types of soap opera. In advertisements, there are three all male ads to every one all female ads. A study conducted by Beuf (1974) was based on 63 interviews with boys and girls between the ages of three and six. Some girls had abandoned their ambitions even by this early age. Several girls mentioned that their ambitions could not be realised because of their sex. The implication is that because of the small number of high-status female models in the media available for girls to model themselves on, the ambitions of real women are limited. The power of the media in this respect is thought to be very strong. This is not surprising as the Average American girl will have spent more time in front of the TV by the time she is 15 than she will have spent in the classroom. Beuf also argues that women suffer anxiety and stress due to this and because advertising and soap operas create concerns in women particularly about; their body image, the constant need to spend money on products to make them more attractive and desirable for males and also the competition with other women to fight and keep their man. Liberal feminists argue that individuals are trained by the mass media and other social institutions into patterns of behaviour which are performed unconsciously. Sex-roles in particular, have been built up over a long period of time and have become embedded in our culture. Radical feminists identify men as the enemy. They believe that men consciously and unconsciously manipulate social institutions for their own benefit and to the detriment of women. Men hold the dominant positions throughout the media and are able to use them to reflect the images of women which they desire. According to socialist feminists the role of the media is to sustain and perpetuate the capitalist system and the supporting role of women in it. Davies says that those who control the media are almost all rich men, there is every incentive for them to present the capitalist, patriarchal scheme of things as the most attractive system available and to convince the less privileged that the oppression and limitations of their lives are inevitable. According to Skirrow, for example video games are particularly unattractive to women, as they are part of a technology which is identified as male power, and they are about mastering a specifically male anxiety in a specific male way.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Comparision Between Tabloid and Broadsheet Newspapers -- Media News Ne

A comparison between how broadsheet and tabloid newspapers convey the same story I have chosen to compare a story from The Times as my broadsheet paper and The Sun as the Tabloid. The story is primarily about a man who had raped his two daughters several times. In The Times, the headline said ‘How two girls were trapped by shame, fear and the love of their own children’. The Broadsheet focuses on sympathizing for the girls, giving all information they have in a straightforward way and getting the story through rather than trying to get attention or exaggerating the story, as they did in the tabloid paper, The Sun. The headline was ’25 life terms for Brit Fritzl who raped his two daughters 1,000 times’. The numbers stand out and make the story seem more shocking. 1,000 is a very big number and it makes any audience shocked to see such a big number in a headline. As this is a tabloid, you never know, the number might have been altered. But that is not the first thing that comes to mind when you see such a headline. You would want to read more about it. In the Broadsheet, the man who raped his two daughters is referred to as ‘Mr X’, as his family do not want to be recognized in public, and it is also ag ainst the law to identify names for a story about sexual abuse. But in the Tabloid they avoid needing to use a name as a reference. In the tabloid, the man is compared with a well-known Austrian person named Fritzl who just like ‘Mr x’ had raped his daughter then imprisoned her. This is very typical of a tabloid paper to make comparisons and also use informal language such as ‘Brit’. The language in the tabloid is much more easy to understand, and it is quite informal and simple. It is the sort of language you would use ever... ...ger audience, one who would rather know the general details rather than the whole story in detail. That is why I prefer to read a tabloid paper as it is easier to empathize with for you have a better understanding of what is going on. It keeps it short so that you can move on to the next story. But that is my opinion and I fall into the tabloid’s aiming category, and others may have different ideas. The Broadsheet is aimed at a smaller yet more complex audience, who would want to know all the details in the story. Stories in broadsheets are more about business, tax or politics, the sort of things that these sort of people are interested in, so it helps if they know all the smallest details. Broadsheet uses increasingly formal language, for more mature readers. That is why I find in hard to read a broadsheet newspaper, I would rather just know the general details.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Chemistry Lab Report Water Hydration Introduction

Chemistry Lab Report Water Hydration Introduction: A hydrated crystal or hydrated occurs when water becomes tightly attracted to a metal salt base on it’s polarity. The water molecules maintain integrity as molecules, however they are considered to be part of the formula of the hydrate. When the hydrate metal salt crystal is heated, the attractions to the water are broken by the heat energy and the water escape from the crystal. After heating the salt crystal is called as anhydrous, which means without water. Many of the salt contain transition metals such as cobalt that is colorful (purple).Often the color of transition metal like cobalt’s color will change as a function of how many waters it is attracted to. Compounds containing water (H2O) of hydrated are written with water separate by a dot (. ). This (. ) means for hydrated metal salt there are how many number of moles of water bound to each mole of that metal salt. Research Question: The aim of this experiment is to calculate the number of moles of water bounded to each mole of cobalt chloride ( CoCl2. H2O). This cobalt chloride hydrated may be monohydrate with 1 mole of water attracted to cobalt chloride.It may be dihydrate, trihydrate, tetrahydrate or pentahydrate; your task is to determine which one you are given. Hypothesis: If cobalt chloride were heated until there is no further lose in weight, 6 moles of water would be lost from 1 mole of salt. Therefore it is predicted that there are 6 moles of water in this reaction. Materials (Apparatus): 1. 3 gram of cobalt chloride 2. Evaporating dish 3. Tongs to hold the evaporating dish 4. Ring stand 5. Iron ring 6. Clamp 7. Bunsen burner 8. Matches 9. 40. 20 g size of the crucible 10. Digital balance/ g 0. 01 11.Clay triangle 12. Gloss rod Procedure: 1. Place an empty crucible on digital balance by uncertainty of 0. 01g 2. Measure the size of the crucible without salt 3. Add 3 gram of cobalt chloride to the crucible 4. Measure the total size o f crucible containing cobalt chloride 5. Take the crucible containing salt, place it on the Bunsen burner by tongs. Place crucible on a clay triangle and iron ring to protect the crucible from falling. 6. Gently heat the crucible by Bunsen burner 7. Use a gloss rod to give a movement to cobalt chloride to crystalized. 8.Record time for salt crystallization 9. Stop heating when cobalt chloride crystalized 10. Wait for few second for crucible to cool down 11. Place and Measure the anhydrous crucible by digital balance 12. Using calculation find the number of moles in this reaction. CoCl2 . nH2O CoCl2 + nH2 Data Collection and Processing: Process| Observation during the experiment | Changes in color | As we started heating the crucible containing CoCl2. H2O , the color of the CoCl2 started to change from violet purple to dark purple and the blue in 6 minutes and it is because of water evaporation. Appearance of the salt during heating | After 3 to 5 minutes, as water was evaporating an d reaching its melting and boiling point, salt began to bubble. At the beginning of heating it was powdery solid then it changed to liquid and at last solid again. Volume of salt decreases because of lost of molecules. We waited for 10 minutes until it cooled down. | Calculations: Raw data collected Mass| Grams | Uncertainty /g  ±0. 01| Crucible| 42. 20 g| 0. 02 %| Pure H2O | 1. 36 g| 0. 73 %| Pure CoCl2| 1. 66 g | 0. 60 %| | | Total uncertainty | | | 0. 08 %|Find the masses: Crucible + CoCl2. H2O = 45. 23 g Anhydrous = 43. 86 g Mass of pure H2O = 45. 23 – 43. 28 = 1. 36 g Mass of pure CoCl2 = 3. 02 – 1. 36 = 1. 66 g Find the uncertainty: CoCl2 = 1. 66 = 0. 01 = 0. 60 % 100 x H2O = 1. 36 = 0. 01 = 0. 73 % 100 x Crucible = 42. 20 = 0. 01 = 0. 02 % 100 x Total uncertainty: 0. 02 % + 0. 60 % + 0. 73 % = 1. 3 % 100 = 1. 3 = 0. 08 % 6 x Find the percentage of water: % Water = weight of water in sample * 100 Original weight of sample % 45. 03 = 1. 36 *100 3. 02 Find the nu mber of moles: CoCl2 . H2O CoCl2 H2O 1. 661. 36 1. 66 * 18 n = 1. 36 * 130 29. 88 n = 176. 8 g 130 18 n n = 176. 8 / 29. 88 n = 6 moles CoCl2 . 6H2O CoCl2 +6H2O Conclusion: From this experiment, I investigated that my hypothesis is fairly accurate as I predicted. Therefore it is concluded that through empirical formula, the degree of hydration is hydrated CoCl2 was determined to a relative degree of accuracy. It is determined to be approximately 6 moles of water bonded with 1 mole of CoCl2 and giving: CoCl2 . 6H2O. Evaluation:Our experiment was fairly close as the ratio was 1:5. 9. However, the ratio achieved through this experiment was, while approximately accurate to the accepted literature value of 1: 6, not so precise tat this ratio could be assumed to anything greater or lesser than 1 significant figure. This anomaly can be explained by acknowledging some errors within the experimental process. While the determined degree of hydration was not perfect, and indeed to find the cur rent rather elaborate ratio a degree of rounding was still required, it was still reasonably accurate. Some errors can be: 1.Over heating of the hydrated cobalt chloride can result in burning the anhydrous compound of cobalt chloride, therefore contaminating it with oxygen and alerting the mass present in the crucible. This could lead to varying degrees of inaccuracy. 2. Base on the fact that cobalt chloride is hydrophilic means; it will absorb moisture from atmosphere. Therefore, the experiment should be conducted in a dry, well-aired lab to avoid as little absorption as possible. 3. In contrast to burning the anhydrous compound, the heating could have failed to completely remove all the water or revise it; it may over heated that also effect on the accuracy.Improvements: There are several ways to improve this experiment. The key improvement to this experiment would probably be to decrease the intensity with which flame is applied to the crucible. This reduces the possibility to re duce overheating, and increase the period of time spent dehydrating the sample to ensure a slower, more through and less intense dehydration. Another improvement can be using a lab, which has the suitable location for this experiment. At last, have a expert partner or teacher to tell u, when stop heating the crucible can improve the accuracy of constant mass to achieve.

Monday, January 6, 2020

Essay on The Collape of Animal Farm - 1156 Words

The Collape of Animal Farm In today’s world, people have always strived to create a utopian society. In the novel ANIMAL FARM written by George Orwell, the animals strive to create their own utopian society based on equality and prosperity. Animalism was created to, as like the Ten Commandments, Animalism’s Seven Commandments were rules for the animals to live by. However, similar to God’s rules, Animalism was a difficult concept for all the animals to follow and live by. Secondly, the collapse of Animal Farm was due to the animal’s own intelligence and their ability to fully understand how the farm was being run. Finally, the failure of Animal Farm was due to in large part by the pigs power over the other animals and the greed and†¦show more content†¦The animals worked day and night to make Animal Farm the best it could be. The animals would not work on Sundays. Sunday was the only day that they slept in, and have a Sunday meeting. At Sunday meetings, the work for the com ing week was planned out and resolutions were put forward and debated. Napoleon and Snowball were the only animals to bring forward new resolutions. The other animals only voted, since they could not think of any resolutions of their own. In a short period of time, Napoleon and Snowball were becoming rivals. The competition between the two pigs, led to Snowball being chased off the farm by Napoleon’s dogs, and Napoleon becoming the leader. Napoleon began giving out orders and demands out to the other animals. The animals were becoming slaves, but did not realize it because of their low intelligence and stupidity. They did not have the full ability to understand what exactly what was happening on the farm. The pigs were getting everything. Milk, food, hot and cold water, and much more. A few animals did question at one point about what had happened to all the milk and apples. Squealer, who was Napoleon’s partner, was able to explain why this was so. â€Å"Milk and appl es contain substances absolutely necessary to the well-being of a pig. We pigs are brain-workers. The whole management and organization of this farm depend on us. It is for your sake that we drink that milk, and eat those apples. Do you know what would happen if